Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of uncertain etiology. There is consensus that a dysregulated immune system plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of MS.
MS is characterized by immune dysregulation, which results in the infiltration of the CNS by immune cells, triggering demyelination, axonal damage, and neurodegeneration. There have been tremendous advances in the neuroimmunology of MS over the past five decades, which have led to improved diagnosis and therapy in the clinic. Not surprisingly given the incredible complexity of both the nervous and immune systems, our understanding of the basic biology of the disease is very incomplete.
In this article, we review the main immunological mechanisms involved in MS pathogenesis and Updates on inflammation, neurodegeneration, and immunoregulation in MS.